Parenting is a very crucial topic as it is not only responsible for establishing parent-children relationship but also has significant effects on child’s attitude and behavior. These effects carry over in to even adult behavior and also shape children’s personality.
Though every parent has a unique style of raising their child, psychologists have identified four major types of parenting styles and each one has different characteristics and effects on children.
Each of these parenting styles varies on certain areas like discipline, style, communication, nurturance and expectations.
- In this parents use strict discipline and have high expectations from their children.
- They set certain limits for their children.
- It is also characterized by low responsiveness from parents.
- Punishment is common in this kind of parenting.
- Parents try to make their children behave according to the societal and cultural norms.
This kind of parenting leads to following effects:
- Children have lower self esteem.
- They may act fearfully ,face problems in social setting.
- Lack independent nature.
This parenting style may be effective if used properly and under limits.
- This is the most damaging parenting style.
- Parents are emotionally distant from the children, show little love, warmth and care towards them.
- They have little or no expectations from their children.
- Parents do not spend quality time with their children.
- They lack supervision and support towards their children.
- There is a huge communication gap between parents and children.
- Parents show no trust or understanding towards their children.
- Children are emotionally unstable and withdrawn.
- They have high risk of substance abuse.
- They feel anxiety, stress because of lack of support from their parents.
- They have high chances of getting in to depression.
This is also called as indulgent parenting.
- These parents are usually very nurturing.
- These parents are not very demanding.
- They provide children with very few guidelines and rules .which leads to confusion among them. They make very less attempts to teach discipline to their kids.
- They emphasize on children’s freedom rather than expectations.
- The over relaxed nature of parents have negative implications like children display low achievement due to lack of expectations from their parents.
- They tend to lack discipline and ways to behave in social setting.
- Lack of guidelines from parents leads them to make improper decisions.
- Insecurity in children due to lack of guidance.
This is regarded as the most effective and useful parenting style.
- These parents have expectations from their children but also provide them with nurturing and supportive environment.
- These parents create healthy and supportive environment which allows children to grow and explore their own potential.
- They listen to their children’s demands and opinions.
- They are responsive to emotional needs of their children.
- Children are independent and have high self-esteem.
- Have good intra and inter personal skills.
- They tend to achieve higher academic excellence and have better mental health.
- Are independent and self-sufficient.
Research has found that authoritative parenting style is the most effective and efficient style and is linked with various positive outcomes.